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Why do I need to know the technical characteristics of tissues?

The document outlines the main regulations that furniture fabrics must meet and their technical characteristics.

Why do I need to know the technical characteristics of tissues?
The technical characteristics of furniture fabrics are determined by GOST 24220-80, which was adopted in the USSR, and in our time has undergone certain changes. This standard includes synthetic, cotton, linen, woolen, and mixed fabrics used in furniture production.

Width of furniture fabrics

According to the requirements of GOST 9205, GOST 9202, the width of furniture fabrics is regulated by the following table.

Type of fabric

Width, cm


142 и 152


150 и 160

Cotton, mixed, synthetic


Silk and semi-silk


Raw materials for fabrics

From raw materials, that is, from what the fabric is made of, its performance characteristics will depend.

Natural fibers (linen, cotton, silk, wool) give the fabric hygienic properties, have high hygroscopicity, allow the body to breathe, do not electrify and guarantee safe contact with the skin.

Synthetic fibers (polyester, nylon, acrylic) give the fabric strength, elasticity, do not burn out and do not cause problems in the care.

Artificial fibers (viscose) are approximated to natural by production method (they are obtained from cellulose, which is a product of wood processing). And by properties - they let in air and are very pleasant to the body with its softness and silky.

Density of furniture fabrics

Density - one of the most important indicators of furniture fabrics, responsible for wear and durability.

Density is measured in grams per square meter. Proceeding from this, 8 categories of density are determined. 1 - the lowest, it includes lightweight furniture fabrics, 8 - the highest, it is dense natural leather.

Resistance to abrasion

On resistance to abrasion, they judge the purpose of the fabric, that is, about where it should be used and with what frequency to exploit it. The abrasion test is named Martindale and consists in the fact that a piece of cloth undergoes mechanical friction in all directions by a disk with felt fixed on it. By the result of the preservation of tissue and its resistance to abrasion is determined.

The test is considered complete when two or more threads are broken, and the pile of the pile fabrics is worn to the ground. Cotton and mixed fabrics should withstand no less than 800 cycles, tapestries and viscose fabrics - no less than 500 cycles.


Pilling of the fabric is nothing more than the formation of spools on it, which can spoil the appearance and make the material unpleasant to the touch. The higher the quality of the fabric, the less likely the appearance of pellets.

Color fastness

Color fastness of the fabric is an indicator of how the material reacts to light, how quickly it burns, sheds and loses its brightness. Color stability is measured in points. A score of 5 or higher is considered high. Below three points have poor quality fabrics.

The strength of the color is regulated by the following numbers of GOSTs: 7913, 7780, 7779, 11151.


Breathability - the ability of the tissue to breathe, that is, to let in air. This is a very important hygienic characteristic, the absence of which leads to discomfort, and sometimes - to irritations on the skin. If we are talking about furniture fabrics, then this indicator is important from a practical point of view: if the fabric does not pass air, it will go through the seams when loaded, and this will soon cause the material to disperse along the seam.

Fire resistance

No matter how beautiful the fabric is, it must meet the safety requirements. As with the hygienic point of view, so with the fire. How many accidents happened because of the outstanding cigarette left on the couch! To prevent this from happening, a test is performed on the fire resistance of the fabric, which is called "cigarette", and consists in placing a burning cigarette on a piece of foam rubber covered with a cloth. If the ashes reach the filter, but the fabric does not light up, the test is considered passed.

In no case should you try to carry out this test at home, it is only allowed to professionals, and in specially trained rooms.


Impregnation is used to impart additional protective properties to the tissues. A new generation of furniture fabrics with mud and water-repellent impregnations took a worthy place in the row of furniture fabrics. Such upholstery materials were called anti-vandal and became a salvation for owners of animals, parents with young children and for people caring for lying patients.

All technical characteristics of fabrics, such as width, surface density, interlacing of yarns, type of raw materials, linear density of yarn and threads, should be reflected in the accompanying documents (technical documentation) for each roll of fabric.

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